Submission and Style Guidelines for Authors

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The author(s) shall submit the manuscript to the Editorial Board of the AJSI through This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. email of Research and Publication Directorate office for the purpose of publication only following the standard format stated in the Submission and Style Guidelines for Authors.  For the main manuscript, AJSI prefers to receive a single complete file that includes all figures and tables in Word’s .docx format. The Supplementary Material should be submitted as a single separate file in docx if any. LaTeX document convert files to Microsoft Word .docx are also accepted.

The manuscript should be in B5 size with a single column layout, normal margin and the text should be 1.5 spaced; with 12-point, Times New Roman font. All manuscripts must contain at least the essential elements of the article and divide the article into clearly defined sections, for example, Abstract, Introduction/Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and References. Technical terms should be defined. Symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms should be defined the first time they are used. All tables and figures should be cited in numerical order. Some of headings are optional, for example, not all papers will include tables, figures, key words, ethical consideration, acknowledgements, or supplementary materials. Subheadings can be categorized by using numbering by Arabic or Roman number or alphabetical letter with small or capital or without numbering. Two or more levels of subheadings may be used if warranted; please distinguish them clearly.

Manuscript must be written in clear and concise English or Amharic or Afaan Oromo languages. Either British or American spelling English is acceptable. General format of the research papers but not limited to this shall be as follows:

Title Page

The title page should include:

Abstract
The second page should carry an abstract of not more than 350 words unless suggested by reviewers and get acceptance by editorial members. For full research paper, the abstract shall be structured into four components or use paragraph(s) without using structure. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.

Key words

Below the abstract, provide key words (minimum three but not more than ten) representing the main content of the article in alphabetical orders separated by coma.

Introduction/Background
Clearly state the purpose of the study. Briefly summarize the rationale of the study and clearly indicate the lacunae or deficiencies in previous studies or a summary of the existing literature for which present study has been taken up or why this study was necessary or its contribution to the field. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Give only pertinent references. Do not review the subject extensively.

Methods or Methodology or Materials and Methods

The methods or methodology or materials and methods section should provide sufficient information to allow replication of the study. It should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. Study design should be described in detail and descriptions of reagents and equipment should facilitate replication (for example source and purity of reagents should be specified if applicable). Statistical methods must be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. The values and the specific statistical test performed for each observation/experiment should be included in the appropriate table or figure legend or main text.
In general, the methods section should include:

Results

This should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and/or figures. Include number of observation and the statistical significance of the findings appropriately. Detailed statistical analyses, mathematical derivations, and the like may sometimes be suitably presented in the form of one or more appendices. Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations including qualitative or narrative data. Do not repeat in the text all the data already given in tables, illustrations or both. Emphasize and summarize only important observations. Each table or legends for illustrations or figures should be typed continuously with the text. Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics. Separate reporting of data by demographic  variables, such as age and sex, facilitate pooling of data for subgroups across studies and should be routine, unless there are compelling reasons not to stratify reporting, which should be explained. The result section can be presented separately or in combination with discussion section as “Result and Discussion” section.

Discussion

It is useful to begin the discussion section by briefly summarizing the main findings, and explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and conclusions derived from them. Do not repeat in details data given in the results section. Include in the discussion the implications of the findings in context of existing research and their limitations and relate the research topics, and explore the implications of your findings for future research and for policy. Link the conclusion with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data. Discussion should be relevant and an unnecessary lengthy presentation should be avoided.

Conclusion

A very brief summary note of the work with a concluding remark should be given. This should include the novelty and implication of the work and its contribution to the upliftment of the present scientific knowledge in general and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study reported. The conclusion section should not have any citations within it. This section should be written with continuous sentences without any subheading in it, and does not use bullet point/numbered lists.

List of abbreviations (if any)

If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use or spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement, and a list of abbreviations shall be provided if applicable. Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript.

Acknowledgements (if any)

Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials if applicable. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.

References

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the reference style used by AJSI. The APA style is an example of Author-Date style (the author’s surname and the year in parenthesis (author, year)); this means that every time an author is cited in your paper, you have to credit the work with an in-text citation. When the name of the author is used as part of your narrative just add the year after the surname in parenthesis (i.e. Gray (2007)). All sources should be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the essay in a section called References and double-spacing with hanging indents for the second and subsequent lines of each source. Only appropriate and up to date references should be cited. The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents as per APA reference style. Examples of correct forms of reference are given below:

Example of journal article:

Harsh, C., & Martin, G. (2013). Comparing holistic and analytic scoring methods: Issues of validity and reliability. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 20(3), 281-307. doi:10.1080/0969594X.2012.742422

Example of Book: Foskett, N. (1997). Teaching and learning through fieldwork. In D. Tilbury & M. Williams (Eds.), Teaching and learning geography (pp. 189-201). London: Routledge.

Example of eBook:Smith, K. (2008). Environmental hazards: Assessing risks and reducing disaster. Retrieved from http://www dawsoneraom.dcu.idm.oclc.org/abstract/9780203884805

Example of Newspaper article:Finley, R. (2014, March 29). Prospects still slim for major pick-up of global economy. The Irish
Examiner
, p. 27.

Example of E-journal article: Dahl-Michelsen, T., & Solbraekke, K. N. (2014). When bodies matter: Significanceof the body in gender constructions in physiotherapy education. Gender &Education, 26(6), 672-687. doi:10.1080/09540253.2014.946475

Example of Master’s Theses and Doctoral Dissertations: Meehan, D. (2007). An exploration of the relationship between poet and the community based on
the work of three contemporary Irish poets
. (Unpublished master’s thesis). DCU, Dublin.

Example of Conferences, symposia and meetings: Noak, M. (2009). State policy support for school health education. Mathematical Proceedings of
the 53rd annual meetings of the Royal Irish Academy
(pp.69-98). Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.

Example of Website/Document on the Internet: Zimmer, A. (2015, October 13). Increase in homelessness affecting city real estates. The Awl.
Retrieved from http://www.dnainfo.com/newyork/20151013/murray-hill/increase-homelessnessaffecting-city-realestate-brokers-say.

Example of Blogs, newsgroups and forum entries: Lupton, D. (2015, December 10). Public understanding of personal digital data. This
Sociological Life
. [Blog post]. Retrieved January 5, 2016 from https://simplysociology.wordpress.com/2015/12/10/publicunderstanding-of-personal-digital-data

Example of Image on the Internet: Glucksman Library. (2010). Unidentified pianist and clarinettist [image] (1986). Retrieved January 18, 2016, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ul_digital_library/9269252308/in/albu m-72157634603228191/

Example of Personal communication (Interview, email, unpublished lecture): Toíbín, C. (2013, June 15). Personal interview.

Example of Government agency and organisation publication: Department of Education and Skills. (2015). Guidelines for the publication of school inspection reports. Retrieved from http://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Inspection Reports Publications/Evaluation-ReportsGuidelines/insp_publication_reports_guidelines.pdf

Example of Reports and press releases: Byrne, T., Nixon, E., Mayock, P. & Whyte, J. (2006). The free time and leisure needs of young
people living in disadvantaged communities
(Research briefing issue 1). Dublin: Children’s Research Centre.

Example of Data from Central Statistics Office: Central Statistics Office. (2011). Educational Attainment Thematic Report 2011. Retrieved from
CSO website: http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/releasespublications/documents/ed ucation/2011/educational attainment2011.pdf

Example of Audio-visual media: Woolley, S. (Producer), & Jordan, N. (Director). (1996). Michael Collins. Ireland; Warner Bros.

Example of Music recording: Kidjo, A. (2003). The sun shines in the Benin. On African playground [CD]. New York:
Putumayo Kids.

Example of Online video: Sekine K. (2015, April 15). Young Juvenile Youth [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/143468503

Figures and tables embedded in the text

Tables

Tables shall be presented on a separate page, portrait or landscape orientation accordingly. Tables have a title in bold text. Tables should be as small as possible. Tables should be self-contained and complement, not duplicate, information contained in the text. They should be supplied as editable files, not pasted as images. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend, and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. All abbreviations and symbols must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ffi, §, ¶, or others should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM or others should be identified in the headings.

Figure legends

 

We encourage authors to incorporate the manuscript text and figures together in a single Word doc, and for each figure legend to be presented together with its figure. However, if a paper is accepted, we require figure legends to be listed one after the other, as part of the text document, separate from the figure files. Each figure legend should begin with a brief title for the whole figure and continue with a short description of each panel and the symbols used. For contributions with methods sections, legends
should not contain any details of methods. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement if applicable.

Figures

Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive detail. Figures should not contain more than one panel unless the parts are logically connected; each ,panel of a multipart figure should be sized so that the whole figure can be reduced by the same amount and reproduced on the printed page at the smallest size at which essential details are visible.

Authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible, for peer-review purposes, a wide variety of formats, sizes, and resolutions are accepted.Figures submitted in colour may be reproduced in colour free of charge. Please note, however,that it is preferable that line figures (e.g. graphs and charts) are supplied in black and white so that they are legible if printed by a reader in black and white.

Supplementary files

AJSI accepts supplementary files to be published along with an article. This feature can add dimension to the author’s article, as certain information cannot be added in the main article or more appropriate as supplementary information. For each supplementary file kindly supply a concise caption describing the content of the file. Supplementary files will be published as received from the author without any conversion, editing, or reforming.

Additional Files

Appendices

Appendices will be published after the references. For submission, they can be supplied as separate files or at the end of manuscript but referred to in the text.

Supporting Information

Supporting information is information that is not essential to the article, but provides greater depth and background. It is appears without editing or typesetting. It may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc.

Note: if data, scripts, or other artefacts used to generate the analyses presented in the paper are available via a publicly available data repository, authors should include a reference to the location of the material within their paper.